All people share an inherent right and irrepressible desire to live in freedom and make decisions about their own lives. As historical and more recent events have shown, denial of this basic truth leads inevitably to injustice, conflict, and suffering.

Democracy is the best form of government for ensuring peace, prosperity, sustainable development, and human progress because it is rooted in a recognition of human rights and allows for the orderly reconciliation of competing views and interests. It is a political system based on the free consent of the governed, and it is maintained through a network of mutually reinforcing structures, in which those exercising power are subject to checks both within and outside the state—from independent courts, an independent press, and all the elements of a diverse and active civil society.

No individual democracy adheres perfectly to this ideal, but democratic rights and institutions provide the means for self-correction and improvement. When one part of the democratic system falters, the others can be used as tools to repair and strengthen it, empowering people to constantly, peacefully strive for a better future.

Some of the most urgent challenges of our time stem from a failure of democratic states and societies to rally together, offer consistent and reciprocal support, and collectively address violations of fundamental rights wherever they occur. The neglect has been corrosive, leading to nearly two decades of decline in global freedom and a pattern of mounting authoritarian aggression. In response, the world’s democracies must work together to reinforce shared ideals and confront common threats.

In keeping with the goals of the second Summit for Democracywe—the undersigned nongovernmental organizations and civil society cohort leads—declare that the following principles are integral to the success of all democracies, and to the rights, dignity, security, and freedom of their people. We call on states to take the recommended actions associated with each principle.

We affirm that observance of these principles will demonstrate the efficacy, legitimacy, and appeal of democratic governance, both to those living in freedom and to those still struggling to end their oppression. We commit to supporting these principles around the world, without exception, because they protect the dignity of all people and promote opportunity for all.

Principle 1: Protection and Cultivation of Fundamental Freedoms and Civic Space

  • States should maintain an enabling environment for civil society activism by guaranteeing respect for the freedoms of association, peaceful assembly, and expression and ensuring that law and policy do not impede the work of civil society organizations.
  • States should promote the right of civil society representatives to participate in public policymaking, in part by affording them opportunities to provide input on proposed laws and to express views that are critical of existing laws and policies.
  • States should refrain from reprisals against and stigmatization of civil society activists, support international standards that prohibit such behavior, and offer protection to those who are forced into exile.

Principle 2: Election Integrity and Political Pluralism

  • States should conduct regular, free, and fair elections that are accessible to and inclusive of all eligible voters and candidates and that enable orderly transfers of power.
  • States should foster space for robust political party competition that provides a platform for diverse political viewpoints and gives voters a meaningful choice on election day.
  • States should cultivate and appropriately fund autonomous, professional, and impartial institutions to manage elections.
  • States should promote positive, open discourse on democracy, and election authorities should proactively and expeditiously address information that has the potential to undermine trust in the election cycle, without improperly infringing on the fundamental freedoms of speech and expression.
  • States and election authorities should consider the opportunities and risks associated with the introduction of new election technologies and select the most appropriate tools to support efficient, transparent, and credible election processes.
  • States should commit to the ideal, through a democratic system of checks and balances, that all elected governments serve the interests of the public as a whole and respect the rights of political and demographic minority groups. Pluralistic legislatures with the power to monitor and challenge the executive branch should play an active role in this process.
  • States should increase transparency and accountability in political financing to promote fair competition in elections and close off opportunities for private, illicit, or undemocratic interests to unduly influence decision-making.

Principle 3: Inclusive Policymaking

  • States should recognize that the loss of agency and control among citizens, or even the impression thereof, is a key source of democratic instability.
  • States should prevent related harms by working to explore, expand, and refine mechanisms that give citizens a substantive and visible role in the major policy decisions and legislative initiatives affecting their lives.
  • States should take into account the voices of people from emerging democracies and the Global South when developing policies that could affect conditions beyond their own borders. For example, states should consult widely on draft regulations for global digital platforms that might negatively impact freedom of expression in other countries.

Principle 4: Solidarity against Authoritarian Pressure

  • States with donor capacity should maintain or significantly increase their support for democratic movements and institutions worldwide. They should deepen diplomatic and material support for democratic activists in authoritarian environments and provide a safe haven for those who are forced to flee as a result of their work.
  • States should keep a public spotlight on the mounting number of human rights defenders, journalists, and democracy activists who have been detained worldwide, and take additional steps to routinely and proactively advocate for the swift release of specific political prisoners during interactions with counterparts in other governments.
  • States should recognize that transnational repression is a threat to democracy and human rights worldwide, as it undermines the rule of law, imperils civil and political liberties, and spreads authoritarian practices. States should commit to addressing transnational repression, including by ending impunity for perpetrators, strengthening the resilience of democratic institutions, and protecting vulnerable groups and individuals.
  • States should reinforce economic solidarity as a deterrent to authoritarian economic coercion, working to better insulate individual states from retaliatory measures when they stand up for the values of democracy and human rights.

Principle 5: Media Freedom and Resistance to Disinformation

  • States should recognize that a diverse and independent media sector is essential to the health of a democracy, and actively protect journalists from censorship, threats of violence, and other undue restrictions on their work.
  • States should foster a culture of transparency in government, allowing the press to access the information it needs to hold public officials accountable for their performance or malfeasance.
  • States should enact and adhere to laws and regulations that protect freedom of expression as enshrined in Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.
  • States should cultivate societal resilience to disinformation by safeguarding the right to freely access and distribute credible information, promoting media literacy at all levels of society, and supporting initiatives committed to tracking, analyzing, and combating harmful disinformation campaigns.
  • States should take a proactive approach to countering disinformation, enhancing their predictive capabilities and engaging in preemptive measures to “prebunk” emerging narratives. They should invest in public diplomacy to advance these goals.
  • States should work with the private sector to reform media regulations and markets in a manner that will support independent news outlets’ financial self-sufficiency, and actively challenge business models and algorithms that either incentivize or monetize hate speech or dis- and misinformation.

Principle 6: Human Rights on Digital Platforms

  • States should uphold fundamental human rights in the digital sphere. They should refrain from shutting down or disrupting access to and use of telecommunications and online services, including social media platforms, anticensorship technologies, and websites hosting political, social, and religious speech. They should also strengthen legal protections for free expression online, including by decriminalizing speech that is protected under international human rights standards and refraining from the imposition of civil penalties for such speech. The exchange of information through the internet and online platforms should remain open, affordable, and secure, even in times of crisis.
  • States should address digital threats to human security. They should tightly regulate the deployment and ban the export of surveillance tools or other technologies that can facilitate human rights abuses, like NSO Group’s Pegasus spyware product. These systems are often used to spy on human rights defenders, political dissidents, and journalists, or to harass vulnerable communities across borders.
  • States should enact data protection and privacy laws that strengthen human rights, protect encryption, and strictly regulate access to and use of personal data by both state and nonstate actors. Governments should protect their people from harmful commercial data policies and practices that incentivize abuse and misuse of private information. They should also ensure that state collection and use of communications data is carried out in a transparent, accountable, and rights-respecting manner.
  • States should use and regulate digital technologies in a manner that not only supports fundamental rights but also advances equitable economic development, environmental sustainability, and innovation.

Principle 7: Rule of Law and People-Centered Justice

  • States should ensure that their judicial systems are structurally protected from undue political influence and other threats to impartiality, and that independent courts have the authority to check executive or legislative action that infringes on human rights or democratic principles.
  • States should put ordinary people and their needs at the center of justice systems, in part by eliminating legal, administrative, financial, and practical barriers that may prevent some segments of society from accessing relevant services, obtaining due process rights, or securing a fair resolution of their cases.
  • States should empower people and communities to understand, use, and shape the law, and increase meaningful participation in judicial processes.
  • States should use the justice system to prevent and deescalate conflict, promote reconciliation, and address the root causes of societal violence.

Principle 8: Safeguards against Corruption

  • States should work with one another and with civic and private-sector partners to promote best practices for fighting corruption and strengthen international anticorruption mechanisms, including the UN Convention against Corruption, the Financial Action Task Force, and the Open Government Partnership.
  • States should seek to introduce the most effective possible legal mechanisms for tracing, freezing, and confiscating stolen assets. These could include laws against illicit enrichment and forfeiture systems that do not first require criminal conviction.
  • States should work proactively to identify any proceeds of corruption held within their jurisdictions and provide information regarding these assets to the state of origin.
  • States should recognize the special nature of high-level corruption and harmonize their laws and practices to overcome barriers to extradition and other forms of cooperation.
  • States should identify and deter any professional service providers—including attorneys, bankers, accountants, real-estate brokers, financial advisers, and corporate consultants—who facilitate, encourage, or enable transnational corruption through legal or illegal means.
  • States should establish a beneficial ownership registry that is appropriately resourced and monitored, and that balances the public interests of data privacy and ownership transparency.
  • States should uphold fair and transparent processes for public procurement and associated activities, ensuring that they serve the public interest and minimize opportunities for rent-seeking, bribe-taking, and other forms of corruption.
  • States should encourage “collective action” initiatives, including integrity pacts, as a critical multistakeholder tool for preventing corruption at the public-private interface.
  • States should have legal mechanisms in place to ensure that no one is above the law and all high-level representatives of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches can be effectively investigated without fear of retribution.

Principle 9: Gender Equality

  • States should accelerate efforts to address harmful gender-related norms, stereotypes, cultural and social practices, and behaviors that undermine women’s opportunities to participate on equal terms in public life. They should include men and boys in these efforts and encourage media and educational institutions to incorporate gender equality into their professional training and core content.
  • States should conduct a systematic review of legislation, policies, and customary laws to ensure that they promote, rather than hinder, women’s political participation.
  • States should create an enabling environment for women’s political participation by showing zero tolerance for all forms of violence against women, setting legal or normative quotas for women in decision-making bodies, and ensuring that political parties adopt inclusive, transparent, and accountable measures for gender equality within their organizations.
  • States should fully implement and fund UN Security Council Resolution 1325 on women, peace, and security. They should systematically integrate a gender perspective into all stages of conflict prevention, peace, and security efforts by engaging women as equal and meaningful participants at the international, national, and local levels.

Principle 10: Youth Political and Civic Engagement

  • States should encourage political parties and civil society groups to establish youth branches within their organizations and recruit young people to participate in political and civic activities.
  • States should generally consider youth as an opportunity rather than a problem and increase investment in high-quality education in order to enhance, in the long term, young people’s capacity development and involvement in public affairs.
  • States should encourage and support improved and fair access for young people to open, prompt, reliable, and high-quality information, including through information and communication technologies and community radio, in order to strengthen accountability processes and increase youth involvement in decision-making.
  • States should support human rights and gender equality among young people, and eradicate all forms of violence and prejudice against adolescents and youth, including child marriage, early and coerced marriage, and other damaging practices that affect adolescent girls and young women in particular.

Principle 11: Equal Rights for People with Disabilities

  • States should involve people with disabilities and their representative organizations in decision-making processes across all levels of government, in the spirit of “nothing about us without us.” Disability rights issues should also be mainstreamed across a wide range of policy areas, including climate change, food security, disaster risk, health care, and economic growth.
  • States should align their electoral processes with universal design principles to ensure that people with disabilities can participate meaningfully in politics as voters, candidates, election officials, and observers. This includes making all public buildings physically accessible, providing voter and civic education information in accessible formats, and bringing legal frameworks into compliance with the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.
  • States should invest in civic education activities that will support greater engagement by people with disabilities, making an effort to reach young people, members of ethnic and religious minorities, Indigenous people, and those who are out of school and living in remote areas.

Principle 12: Economic Opportunity for All

  • States should support broad access to economic opportunity by upholding individual and communal property rights and preventing arbitrary expropriation or legal seizures without adequate compensation.
  • States should create legal and regulatory conditions that support free enterprise and fair competition, the establishment and operation of small businesses, and freedom from bribery and extortion.
  • States should uphold the freedom of workers to associate and organize in independent labor unions, bargain collectively and enter into contracts with employers, and engage in peaceful strike actions to advance their interests.
  • States should actively identify and punish exploitative labor practices, including unsafe working conditions, forced labor, child labor, and trafficking in persons.
  • States should protect freedom of movement in all its forms, including the ability to travel to educational institutions and new places of employment.

Principle 13: Freedom of Conscience and Religious Belief

  • States should protect the fundamental freedom to practice and express one’s religious faith or nonbelief in public and private.
  • States should ensure that religious institutions and communities are able to operate without undue regulatory burdens, construct and maintain religious buildings without discriminatory obstacles, and provide voluntary religious instruction without official interference.
  • States should uphold the freedom of individuals to eschew religious beliefs and practices, decline participation in religious activities, or decline military service for reasons of conscience.

Principle 14: Comprehensive Freedom from Discrimination

  • States should protect vulnerable populations that are not otherwise addressed above, ensuring that all people are able to exercise their fundamental human rights without disadvantage on the basis of race, ethnicity, national origin, socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, gender identity, or any other such category.
  • States should recognize that the principles enumerated here are not intended to be exclusive. While different circumstances may call for an emphasis on different dimensions of democratic liberty, no such shift in focus should be interpreted as a denial or diminishment of any aspect of human dignity.

The content of this declaration of principles reflects the contributions of the civil society co-leads of cohorts established throughout the Year of Action as part of the Summit for Democracy. Fourteen cohorts contributed to this effort: Anti-Corruption Policies as a Guarantee for National Security, Stability, and Sovereignty; Civic Space; Deliberative Democracy and Citizens’ Assemblies; Disability Rights; Election Integrity; Financial Transparency and Integrity; Gender Equality as a Prerequisite for Democracy; Information Integrity; International Cooperation for Anti-Corruption; Media Freedom; Resisting Authoritarian Pressure; Rule of Law and People-Centered Justice; Technology for Democracy; and Youth Political and Civic Engagement. This initiative was led and coordinated by Freedom House, the George W. Bush Institute, and the McCain Institute.


Organizational Signatories:

  1. American Bar Association Center for Global Programs, USA
  2. Access Now, Global
  3. Accountability Lab, Global
  4. African Initiative of Women Human Rights Defenders (WHRD Initiative), South Africa
  5. African Middle Eastern Leadership Project (AMEL), USA
  6. African Network of Youth Researchers, Côte d’Ivoire
  7. American Federation of Teachers, USA
  8. ARTICLE 19, UK
  9. Association of Black American Ambassadors, USA
  10. Alliance for Peacebuilding, USA
  11. Alliance for Vietnam’s Democracy, USA
  12. Alliance of Democracies Foundation, Denmark
  13. Alliance for Securing Democracy at the German Marshall Fund, USA
  14. American Russian-Speaking Association for Civil and Human Rights (ARA), USA
  15. Basel Institute on Governance, Switzerland
  16. Be Just, USA
  17. Bekker Compliance Consulting Partners, LLC, USA
  18. BigMoneyOutVA, USA
  19. Bulgarian Center for Not-for-Profit Law, Bulgaria
  20. The Carter Center, USA
  21. Center for Democracy and Technology, USA, EU
  22. Center for International Private Enterprise (CIPE), USA
  23. Center for Policy Studies, Armenia
  24. Center for the Advancement of Rights and Democracy (CARD), Ethiopia
  25. Centre for Community Mobilization and Support NGO, Armenia
  26. Charity&Security Network, USA
  27. Citizens Network Watchdog Poland, Poland
  28. Clean Elections Texas, USA
  29. Coalition for Integrity, USA
  30. Coalition For Women In Journalism (CFWIJ), USA
  31. Collaboration on International ICT Policy for East and Southern Africa (CIPESA), Uganda
  32. Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ), USA
  33. Counterpart International, USA
  34. CyberPeace Institute, Switzerland
  35. D.C. Student Consortium on Women, Peace, and Security, USA
  36. Democracy International, USA
  37. Devetaki Plateau Association, Bulgaria
  38. The Digital Democracy Project, USA
  39. Digital Empowerment Foundation, India
  40. Digital Rights Foundation, Pakistan
  41. Digital Rights Lab, Sudan
  42. DT Institute, USA
  43. European Center for Not-for-Profit Law (ECNL), The Netherlands
  44. European Partnership for Democracy (EPD), Belgium
  45. Fix Democracy First, USA
  46. Forum 2000 Foundation, Czechia
  47. Free Expression Myanmar, Myanmar
  48. Freedom for Eurasia, Austria
  49. Freedom House, USA
  50. George W. Bush Institute, USA
  51. Global Forum for Media Development (GFMD), Belgium
  52. Global Project Against Hate and Extremism, USA
  53. Human Rights Foundation, USA
  54. Humanity United, USA
  55. Integrity Initiatives International, USA
  56. InterAction, USA
  57. International Center for Not-for-Profit Law, USA
  58. International Civil Society Action Network (ICAN), USA
  59. International Disability Alliance, Switzerland
  60. The International Foundation for Electoral Systems, USA
  61. International Media Support (IMS), Denmark
  62. International Republican Institute, USA
  63. International Tibet Network (Secretariat), USA
  64. International Youth Think Tank, Sweden
  65. Internews, Global
  66. IREX, USA
  67. Kenya Civil Society Platform on Oil and Gas, Kenya
  68. Keseb, USA
  69. Lapis, United Arab Emirates
  70. Law and Public Policy Center, Georgia
  71. Legal Initiatives for Vietnam, USA
  72. Libyan American Alliance, USA
  73. Manushya Foundation, Thailand
  74. The McCain Institute, USA
  75. MedGlobal, USA
  76. Media Diversity Institute Armenia, Armenia
  77. Minh Van Foundation, USA
  78. Ms. Magazine and Feminist Majority Foundation, USA
  79. National Democratic Institute, USA
  80. Network of Estonian Non-profit Organizations, Estonia
  81. New America’s Political Reform Program and Digital Impact and Governance Initiative, USA
  82. newDemocracy Foundation, Australia
  83. Open Contracting Partnership, USA
  84. Paradigm Initiative, Nigeria, Zambia
  85. PartnersGlobal, USA
  86. Partnership for Transparency Fund, USA
  87. Pathfinders for Peaceful, Just and Inclusive Societies hosted by NYU’s Center for International Cooperation, USA
  88. Peace And Justice Alliance, Canada
  89. People Power United, USA
  90. Pink Human Rights Defender NGO, Armenia
  91. Political Watch, Spain
  92. ProMedia, Bulgaria
  93. PressOne, Romania
  94. Project on Middle East Democracy (POMED), USA
  95. Results for Development (R4D), USA
  96. Renew Democracy Initiative, USA
  97. Robert Bosch Stiftung GmbH, Germany
  98. The Sentry, USA
  99. SHARE Foundation, Serbia
  100. Sinar Project, Malaysia
  101. SMEX, Lebanon
  102. Solidarity Center, USA
  103. Southeast Asia Freedom of Expression Network (SAFEnet), Indonesia
  104. Strategy for Humanity, USA
  105. SZ REDA, Bulgaria
  106. Transparency International U.S., USA
  107. Tunisian United Network, USA
  108. Unified Buddhist Church of Vietnam, Vietnam
  109. United Macedonian Diaspora, USA and Macedonia
  110. United Nations Association of the National Capital Area, USA
  111. United Nations Association of the United States, USA
  112. Usuarios Digitales, Ecuador
  113. Washington & Jefferson College, USA
  114. World Citizens Association of Australia, Australia
  115. World Justice Project, USA
  116. Yerevan Press Club, Armenia
  117. 44 Virtues, USA


Individual Supporters:

  1. Ian Bassin, Co-Founder and Executive Director, Protect Democracy, USA
  2. Thomas Carothers, Senior Fellow, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, USA
  3. Amb. Norman L. Eisen (ret.), Democracy 21 Board, USA